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Hilda Bowen Library: APA Citation and Referencing Guide

The Hilda Bowen Library Collection serves nursing and allied health students of University of The Bahamas. Resources are located in the Harry C. Moore Library at the Oakes Field Campus

APA Citation Style

  • APA uses the Author/Date referencing style, e.g. (Brown, 2015) or Brown (2015).

  • All works in the Reference list must be cited within your paper. Do not include resources you consulted but do not cite (or paraphrase).

  • Italicize book and journal titles. Do not italicize article titles.

  • Do not include the first names of authors or editors. Use only initials and leave a space between initials (e.g. Rowling, J. K., not J.K..)

  • Connect multiple author names with an “&,” not the word “and” in the Reference list and in in-text citations.

  • Check the What's new in APA 7th Edition at this link

  • For example: one space only between sentences, no place of publication for books, no running head for student papers, lots of examples throughout the text.

EBSCOHost, WorldCAT and Google Scholar also provide convenient links to formatted references in various styles - however they are not perfect and will need to be edited.

  • Insert a citation in your text by using parentheses and then the last name of the author and the publication date – e.g., (Smith, 1998).

  • If you are citing a verbatim quote (when the quote appears inside quotation marks), also include the page number on which that quote can be found – e.g., (Smith, 1998, p.109).

  • If the work you are citing has no author, use the first few words of the title in place of the author – e.g., (“APA Citation Style,” 2010).

  • When there are more than five listed authors, replace subsequent authors with “et al”.

  • If no author is given, begin the entry with the title.

  • List all entries alphabetically by the last name of the author (or by title, if, as determined above, the cited work has no author).

  • If you have more than one entry by the same author, list them chronologically, from oldest to newest.

  • Double space all entried in the  Reference list.

  • Use hanging indent - 0.5" -  for all entries.

  • Capitalize the first letter of every main word of a periodical (journal, magazine or newspaper) title: e.g. The Journal of Nursing Scholarship.

  • Capitalize only the very first letter of an article title or a book title e.g. The first nursing school in the Bahamas.

  • Always capitalize all proper nouns.

  • Search engines such as Google and Yahoo are not sources. They merely point you to sources.

  • If the resource has a DOI (digital object identifier), include it at the end of the citation in this format: http//

  • If the resource has no DOI, include its URL at the end of the citation in this format: Retrieved from http//

  • If you retrieved an article from a database (e.g. “Academic Search Premier” ), you may include the full name of the database. Do not include the web address (URL) of the database.

  • Include the retrieval date of an electronic resource only if the document is likely to change (e.g., if the document is from a dynamic webpage). If the document is likely to remain in its initially published form (documents such as journal articles or government reports), no retrieval date is necessary.

  • Include the publication (or updated) date for all electronic resources. If it is impossible to identify the date of publication, you may use “n.d.” (no date) in the citation in place of the date. (Do not confuse the date created with the date you retrieved it).